Non-traditional students in an online introductory course in Homeland Security used the DEAL model of critical reflection to describe (a) what they learned, (b) how they learned it, (c) why it matters, and (d) what they will do with what they learned. Online discussion of readings proved to be the most effective learning technique used in the course because it incorporated reflective practices and allowed application of real-life experiences.
R. Jeffrey Maxfield
R. Jeffery Maxfield is Associate Dean and director of the School of Public Services at Utah Valley University in Orem, Utah. He is a retired Chief Operations Officer for a large metropolitan fire department and has done international consulting on leadership, personal development, and organizational development. He received his doctorate from Utah State University, where he researched perceptions and attitudes of emergency services workers in online-asynchronous learning environments and has a Master of Public Administration (MPA) from Brigham Young University. His current research interests include andragogy (adult learning) and leadership in the emergency services/homeland security.
John Robert Fisher
John R. Fisher is an assistant professor of Emergency Services in the School of Public Services at Utah Valley University in Orem, Utah. He received his PhD from the University of Alberta (Canada), where he studied the impact of mass communication on public policymaking. His current research interests include the application of experiential learning in emergency services bachelor's degree programs, mass communication coverage of disasters, and public policy analysis and impact on public safety. http://works.bepress.com/john_fisher/
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Employing Critical Reflection in an Online Emergency Services Course
Maxfield, R. J. & Fisher, J. R. (2012). Employing critical reflection in an online emergency services course. Journal of Homeland Security Education, 1, 26-40, https://jsire.org/employing-critical-reflection-in-an-online-emergency-services-course