This study compares the views of three groups of undergraduate students regarding National Security Agency bulk surveillance programs, including: Homeland Security majors, Criminal Justice majors, and those studying other disciplines. To do, data were gathered from 257 students attending a private, mid-sized University via an online questionnaire. The results indicate that Homeland Security majors are significantly more likely than both Criminal Justice majors and students studying other disciplines to perceive bulk surveillance programs as effective, but less likely to perceive those programs as Constitutional. Implications of these findings are discussed.


Elizabeth Ulan

Elizabeth Ulan received her BA in Criminal Justice with a concentration in Homeland Security from Monmouth University in 2016. She currently studies law at The Catholic University of America Columbus School of Law.

Brian Lockwood

Brian Lockwood is an associate professor in the Department of Criminal Justice at Monmouth University. His research interests include the spatial correlates of offending, juvenile recidivism, and the opioid epidemic in the United States. Recent publications have appeared in the Journal of Research in Crime & DelinquencyJustice Quarterly, and the Journal of Urban Affairs.

John Comiskey

John Comiskey is an assistant professor in the Department of Criminal Justice at Monmouth University. His research interests include pedagogy in higher education and the development of Homeland Security curricula. Recent publications have appeared in Disasters and the Journal of Homeland Security Education.

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Constitutional, Ethical, Both, or Neither? An Investigation of Homeland Security Majors’ Perceptions of National Security Agency Bulk Surveillance Programs

Suggested Citation

Ulan, E., Lockwood, B., & Comiskey, J. (2018). Constitutional, ethical, both, or neither? An investigation of homeland security majors' perceptions of national security agency bulk surveillance programs. Journal of Homeland Security Education, 7, 46-59, https://jsire.org/constitutional-ethical-both-or-neither-an-investigation-of-homeland-security-majors-perceptions-of-national-security-agency-bulk-surveillance-programs